Science and Technology Development Journal <p><span id="result_box" class="" lang="en"><span title="Tạp chí Phát triển Khoa học và Công nghệ (PTKH&amp;CN) của Đại học Quốc gia thành phố Hồ Chí Minh (ĐHQG-HCM) được thành lập từ năm 1997, ra số đầu tiên vào tháng 1 năm 1998. Từ năm 2006 Tạp chí đã"><strong>Science and Technology Development Journal</strong> (STDJ), Vietnam National University - Ho Chi Minh City (VNU-HCM) was established in 1997. And the first issue was published in January 1998 with </span><span title="đăng ký mã số chuẩn quốc tế ISSN 1859-0128.">ISSN 1859-0128. </span><span title="Từ đó cho đến nay, Tạp chí PTKH&amp;CN đã trở thành diễn đàn khoa học quan trọng nhất của đội ngũ cán bộ nghiên cứu, giảng viên, nghiên cứu sinh của ĐHQG-HCM và cũng là diễn đàn khoa học công nghệ đáng tin cậy của">Since then, STDJ has become the most important scientific forum of scientists from VNU-HCM as well as</span><span title="nhiều nhà nghiên cứu, giảng viên các trường đại học khác tại Việt Nam."> other universities. </span><span title="Tạp chí đã trải qua 20 năm phát triển và đã trở thành nhịp cầu giao lưu khoa học, cũng như làm phong phú tài liệu tham khảo cho đội ngũ giảng viên, nghiên cứu sinh, sinh viên ĐHQG-HCM nói riêng và các Trường đại">The magazine has undergone 20 years of development and has become a bridge for scientific exchanges, as well as enriching reference materials for the faculty, doctoral students, students of VNU-HCM in particular and other universities, institutes... </span></span></p> <p><span id="result_box" class="" lang="en"><span title="học phía Nam nói chung. "><br></span><span title="Tính đến hết năm 2016 Tạp chí đã xuất bản được 276 số với 2714 bài nghiên cứu của các nhà khoa học, cán bộ trong và ngoài ĐHQG-HCM trong 5 lĩnh vực nghiên cứu: Kỹ thuật và Công nghệ, Khoa học Tự nhiên,">By the end of 2016, the journal has published 276 issues with 2714 research articles in five areas of research: Engineering and Technology, Natural Sciences, </span><span title="Khoa học Xã hội và Nhân văn, Kinh tế luật và Khoa học Quản lý, Khoa học Trái đất và Môi trường tương ứng với 5 chuyên san chuyên ngành của Tạp chí.">Social Sciences and Humanities, Economics of Law and Management Sciences, Earth Sciences and Environment corresponding to 5 specialized journals of the Journal. </span></span></p> <p><span id="result_box" class="" lang="en"><span title="Tạp chí đã được phát hành tại các thư viện của các đơn vị thành viên của ĐHQG-HCM, các Sở Khoa học Công nghệ của các tỉnh thành trên cả nước và được Hội đồng học hàm Giáo sư Nhà nước đánh giá cao.">The magazine has been widely indexed in the various libraries at Vietnam. </span></span></p> <p><span id="result_box" class="" lang="en"><span title="Từ tháng 12/2006 Tạp chí đã nhận được sự giúp đỡ của tổ chức mạng quốc tế về các xuất bản phẩm khoa học thuộc Hội đồng khoa học quốc tế để tham gia vào mạng lưới các Tạp chí Khoa học quốc tế. "><br></span><span title="Hiện nay tạp chí bao gồm 5 chuyên san sau đây: ">The journal currently consists of the following five sections:<br></span><span title="• Kỹ thuật và Công nghệ, ">• Engineering and Technology</span></span></p> <p><span id="result_box" class="" lang="en"><span title="• Khoa học Tự nhiên, ">• Natural Sciences</span></span></p> <p><span id="result_box" class="" lang="en"><span title="• Khoa học Xã hội và Nhân văn, ">• Social Sciences and Humanities</span></span></p> <p><span id="result_box" class="" lang="en"><span title="• Kinh tế luật và Khoa học Quản lý, ">• Economics, Law and Management</span></span></p> <p><span id="result_box" class="" lang="en"><span title="• Khoa học Trái đất và Môi trường">• Sciences of Earth and Environment</span></span></p> <p><span class="" lang="en"><span title="• Khoa học Trái đất và Môi trường"><span id="result_box" class="" lang="en">• Health Sciences : It includes work from basic science, clinical science, dental, nursing and other related medical fields. <br></span></span></span></p> Viet Nam National University Ho Chi Minh City en-US Science and Technology Development Journal 1859-0128 <p>Copyright The Author(s) 2018. This article is published with open access by Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh city, Vietnam. This article is distributed under the terms of the&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY 4.0)</a> which permits any use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and the source are credited.&nbsp;</p> Using an LQR active anti-roll bar system to improve road safety of tractor semi-trailers <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Tractor semi-trailer vehicles are playing an increasingly important role in the global freight chain. However, due to the heavy total load and height of the center of gravity, this type of vehicle is often at a higher risk of instability than other vehicles. This paper focuses on improving the vehicle roll stability by using an active anti-roll bar system.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: The Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) approach is used for this purpose with the control signal being the torque generated by the active anti-roll bar system. In order to synthesize the controller, the roll angle of the vehicle body and the normalized load transfer at all axles of the tractor semi-trailer vehicle are considered as the optimal goals.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The simulation results in time and frequency domains clearly show the effectiveness of the proposed method for the active anti-roll bar system, because the reduction of the desired criterias is about 40% less when compared to a vehicle using the passive anti-roll bar system.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: The effectiveness of the active anti-roll bar system on improving the vehicle roll stability, has been verified in this theoretical study with the LQR optimal controller. This is an important basis for conducting more in-depth studies and future experiments.</p> Vu Van Tan Nguyen Duy Hung ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-21 2020-08-21 23 3 593 601 10.32508/stdj.v23i3.2060 title description none g Deriving formulations for forecasting the ultimate strength of locally dented ring-stiffened cylinders under combined axial compression and radial pressure loads <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: This paper focuses on the derived equations to evaluate the ultimate strength of ring-stiffened cylinders with local denting damage under combined loadings. The damage generation scenarios in this research are representing the collision accidents of offshore stiffened cylinders with supply ships.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Numerical analysis of structures are performed using Abaqus software after validation against the experiments from the authors. The responses from seventeen cylinder specimens are analyzed to develop the numerical methods.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Good accuracy results were achieved when comparing the test results and the simulation results. Parametric studies are then performed on design examples of ring-stiffened cylinders when considering both intact and damaged conditions for assessing the reduction factor. Then, the novel simple design equations to assess the residual strength of ring-stiffened cylinders after ship collision are derived based on the regression analysis. These equations have good accuracy with mean value Xm (Uncertainty modeling factor) around 1.0 and together with COV (Coefficient of Variation) lower than 5.3%.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The accuracy and reliability of the derived equations are validated by comparing it with the existing test data in open access. It is concluded that the proposed equations have high accuracy and reliability, and convenient application for the purpose of checking the residual strength of dented offshore cylinder under ship collisions.</p> Do Quang Thang ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-02 2020-09-02 23 3 640 654 10.32508/stdj.v23i3.2412 title description none g Effect of electrospinning parameters on the morphology of polyurethane/polycaprolactone fibers <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Electrospinning is now being widely used as a potential tool for tissue engineering to manufacturing tissue grafts, wound dressings, medical fabrics, and drug delivery systems. Regarding biomaterials,&nbsp; polyurethane (PU) and polycaprolactone (PCL) and their combination are prospective candidates for the fabrication of electrospun membranes used in tissue engineering due to their suitable biocompatibility, biodegradability, and mechanical properties. Thus, this study investigates how to manipulate the electrospinning process of PU/PCL to obtain nanofibers with desired features.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>PU/PCL dissolved in N,N-Dimethylformamide, and tetrahydrofuran were electrospun with various applied voltages, tip-to-collector distances, and flow rates. The collected membranes were observed using a scanning electron microscope to evaluate the effect of electrospinning conditions on their morphology and fiber diameters.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Slower flow rate, longer tip-to-collector distance, and higher voltage all led to smaller,&nbsp; more uniform fibers. By manipulating these factors, the study yielded a non-woven, porous membrane with uniform, separated nanofibers at the condition set of 12 cm tip-to-collector, 20 kV applied, and 0.5 mL/h flow rate.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The study determined the effect of electrospinning parameters on the morphology of polycaprolactone/polyurethane fibers and obtained membrane with suitable properties for further research.</p> Thuan Ba Nguyen, Mr Nam MP Tran, Mr. Nhi NT Dang, M.Sc. Long Phuoc Truong, Dr. Hiep T Nguyen, Dr. ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-27 2020-07-27 23 3 564 568 10.32508/stdj.v23i3.2410 title description none g Application of anthracnose resistance-associated molecular markers in the detection of resistant chili pepper cultivars in Vietnam <p><strong>Introduction:</strong><em> Colletotrichum</em> species is responsible for anthracnose, a worldwide serious disease, causing an important loss in chili pepper production. Therefore, screening disease resistant and sensitive chili pepper cultivars in Vietnam is important not only for in-depth studies of disease resistance-associated molecular mechanisms but also for chili production improvement via molecular marker-assisted breeding in Vietnam.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: To this end, in this study, two <em>Colletotrichum</em> isolates were obtained from the infected fruits collected from chili pepper (<em>Capsicum annuum</em>) fields in Tra Vinh province. According to the morphology analysis and the sequencing results of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions, these isolates were identified as <em>C.&nbsp;scovillei</em> and <em>C.&nbsp;acutatum</em>. In order to identify the anthracnose-resistant chili pepper cultivars, the pathogenicity test was conducted by infecting fully developed green fruits of eleven chili pepper cultivars with the two isolated <em>Colletotrichum</em> strains.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: CN404 and HNCS were the two strongest anthracnose-resistant cultivars. Two chili pepper cultivars, TV3 and PN400, showed different resistance tendencies to each <em>Colletotrichum</em> isolates. Four different SSR molecular markers were used in this study to identify the potential molecular markers associated with anthracnose resistance traits in chili pepper cultivars. Among the four examined markers, HpmsE126 was detected in two anthracnose-resistant chili pepper cultivars, suggesting its close relation to the anthracnose resistance trait in chili pepper.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Given that two of the three most anthracnose-resistant cultivars, CN404 and TV3, possess HpmsE126 marker, this marker can be used to detect anthracnose-resistant lines in chili pepper breeding in Vietnam.</p> Vi An Ly Thao Phuong Thi Truong Thanh Hao Nguyen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-27 2020-07-27 23 3 576 584 10.32508/stdj.v23i3.2395 title description none g Effects of pH, temperature and oxygen-limited condition on the virulence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: <em>Vibrio</em> <em>parahaemolyticus </em>is a popular Gram-negative bacterium in the marine and estuarine regions. It can cause Early Mortality Syndrome (EMS), now named Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND), which resulted in severe losses to the shrimp culture. This study aimed to investigate the effect of pH, temperature, and oxygen-limited condition on the extracellular enzymatic activity of <em>V. parahaemolyticus</em>.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: <em>V.&nbsp; parahaemolyticus </em>XN9, an AHPND-causing strain, was cultured in Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) medium at different pHs (7.5, 8.0, 8.5 and 9.0), temperatures (25<sup>o</sup>C, 30<sup>o</sup>C, and 35<sup>o</sup>C) and different oxygen conditions (either 120rpm shaking or static with the presence of oxygen absorber packages). The activity of five extracellular enzymes, including caseinase, lecithinase, chitinase, gelatinase, and lipase, was assessed using the agar-based method with the corresponding media.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: When pH was increased from 7.5 to 9.0, caseinase and lipase activity was decreased significantly by 88% and 44%. In contrast, gelatinase activity increased markedly from 0 to 1.38 ± 0.17 (+) mm, and lecithinase reached the highest activity, which was 2.96 ± 0.13 mm (++) at pH 8.5. Regarding effect of temperature, highest activity of caseinase (0.85 ± 0.13 mm (+)) and gelatinase (1.37 ± 0.25 mm (+)) was obtained at 35<sup>0</sup>C, lecithinase at 30<sup>o</sup>C and lipase at 25<sup>o</sup>C. Regarding the effect of oxygen level, the activity of most tested enzymes decreased significantly following the decrease of oxygen level. The highest activity of caseinase, gelatinase, and lipase was observed when the bacteria were cultured and tested in a fully oxygenated condition while lecithinase showed the highest activity when the bacteria were cultured in oxygenated condition but tested in oxygen-limited condition. No chitinase activity was observed in any of the tested conditions.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Our data suggested that extracellular enzymatic activity of <em>V. parahaemolyticus</em> is significantly influenced by environmental conditions. No particular testing condition resulted in the highest activity for all tested enzymes. However, warm temperature (30/ 35<sup>o</sup>C), mildly alkaline pH (pH 8.0), and fully oxygenated condition could increase the overall extracellular enzymatic activity of <em>V. parahaemolyticus,</em> thus increase its potential virulence.</p> Van Nhi Tran Phuong Nhat Vi Nguyen Thi Thu Hoai Nguyen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-27 2020-07-27 23 3 569 575 10.32508/stdj.v23i3.2057 title description none g Synthesis and evaluation of α-glucosidase and tyrosinase inhibitory activities of ester derivatives of usnic acid <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Usnic acid isolated from lichen was a potential bioactivity compound. It has a broad spectrum bioactivity, including antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anticancer… However, low solubility in water limited its application. Many researchs have done to overcome the restriction. Recent results showed that usnic acid derivatives bearing triazole, enamine, pyrazole and benzylidene groups had strong antiviral and anticancer activities. Thus, investigation of usnic acid derivatives synthesis was an attractive aspect due to the diversity of bioactivities of usnic acid derivatives.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Usnic acid was isolated from lichen, six ester derivatives of usnic acid were synthesized from usnic acid with acetyl chloride and benzoyl chloride under stirring at room temperature. The products were evaluated <em>α-glucosidase</em> and <em>tyrosinase </em>inhibitory activities.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> All the ester derivatives were created with good yields. All derivatives exhibited the same or higher activity comparing with usnic acid. Ester of usnic acid bearing benzoyl group showed excellent <em>α-glucosidase</em> activity with IC<sub>50</sub> 26.7±0.57 and 68.8±0.15 µM.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Among the ester derivatives, UE1 and UE6 were reported as as new compounds. Interestingly, all products displayed the same or higher biological activity than the starting material, usnic acid when evaluated against <em>α-glucosidase</em> and <em>tyrosinase</em>.</p> Pham Duc Dung Duong Thuc Huy Nguyen Van Kieu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-27 2020-07-27 23 3 585 592 10.32508/stdj.v23i3.1850 title description none g SrTiO3 nanocubes doped with ir as photocatalytic system for enhancing H2 generation from water splitting <p>Designing an effective photocatalyst for hydrogen (H<sub>2</sub>) performance under visible irradiation with a decrease the band gap energy of semiconductor has been considered as an essential aspect in boosting the performance of photocatalytic reactions. Herein, we focus on evaluating the role of doping with Ir into SrTiO<sub>3</sub> structure fabricated by hydrothermal method for H<sub>2</sub> generation. The crystalline characteristics the Ir-SrTiO<sub>3</sub> photocatalyst were carried out via XRD and FE-SEM. The chemical composition and the optical properties of the Ir-SrTiO<sub>3</sub> were classified by EDX and UV-Vis spectra, respectively. The results showcased that the dramatically improved absorbing performances of Ir/SrTiO<sub>3</sub> specimen could be governed by the presence of Ir impurity states in the forbidden energy gap causing a decrease in energy gap of SrTiO<sub>3</sub>. This work also revealed that Ir doped into SrTiO<sub>3</sub> exhibited excellent photocatalytic H<sub>2</sub> evolution compared with pristine SrTiO<sub>3</sub> (~454 and ~325 mmol.h<sup>-1</sup>.g<sup>-1</sup> H<sub>2</sub> production under UV and visible light irradiation, respectively). A rational photocatalytic mechanism is projected to be able provide significant awareness for further research.</p> Ton Nu Quynh Trang Tieu Tu Doanh Do Thanh Sinh Vu Thi Hanh Thu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-24 2020-08-24 23 3 602 609 10.32508/stdj.v23i3.2403 title description none g The effect of content and thickness of chitosan thin films on resistive switching characteristics <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Nowadays, a resistive switching memory using biological, transparent, and environmentally friendly materials is appreciated as the tendency of science and technology, especially in the field of electronic devices. Chitosan (CS), having dominant characteristics such as non-toxic, biocompatible and large capacity, plays as a switching medium in resistive random access memory devices (RRAM).</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: In our study, CS film was fabricated onto a commercial substrate (FTO) using a simple spin coating method, and the top electrode (Ag) was deposited by a direct-current sputtering technique.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The Ag/CS/FTO devices shown the bipolar switching behavior when applying sequence voltage from -1.5 to 2V with the set process in the negative bias and the reset process in the positive bias. The content (0.2, 0.5, and 0.8 wt%) and thickness (100, 300, 500 nm) of chitosan film significantly affect the resistive switching performance. The devices with 0.5 wt%/v concentration and 300 nm-thickness of CS have shown better efficiency than the others with endurance over 100 sweeping cycles and ON/OFF ratio at ca. 2x10 times.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: It is found that the chitosan material has a large potential candidate for applications in optoelectronic devices.</p> Phuc Dinh Do Tu Uyen Thi Doan Tap Duy Tran Dung Van Hoang Kim Ngoc Pham ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-02 2020-09-02 23 3 632 639 10.32508/stdj.v23i3.2418 title description none g Generating and characterizing the anti-human CD45 monoclonal antibody <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: CD45 is a common marker of leukocytes. Anti-human CD45 monoclonal antibody (MAb) has been used widely in diagnosing and monitoring hematologic diseases. The aim of this study was to generate an anti-human CD45 MAb, which can be used in research and diagnosis.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Recombinant human CD45RO antigen was expressed from E. coli BL21 (DE3), purified and analyzed by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. The purified CD45RO antigen was used to immunize Balb/c mice. Spleen cells from immunized mouse were collected and fused with P3X63Ag8.653 myeloma cells to form hybridoma. Anti-CD45 antibody-secreting capacity of hybridoma clones was evaluated by ELISA assay. Anti-CD45 MAb from the culture supernatant of the chosen hybridoma clone was purified by affinity chromatography. The MAb was characterized the biochemical characteristics and biological activity.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Recombinant human CD45RO antigen was expressed and purified from E.coli BL21 (DE3). Injection of purified CD45RO antigen provoked the immune response in Balb/c mice. Hybridoma clones were generated successfully by the fusion of spleen cells from the selected immunized-mouse and myeloma cells. Among these hybridoma clones, one with the highest yield of MAb production was identified. The isotype of the anti-CD45 MAb created in this work is IgG2b, while its the light chain is kappa (k) type. The affinity of this MAb with CD45RO antigen is high with Kd value at the picomolar level. The anti-CD45 MAb can interact with CD45 naturally expressed on the surface of Jurkat cells in Western blotting and fluorescent immuno-staining assay.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: We have developed successfully an anti-human CD45 MAb using hybridoma technology, which can recognize CD45 in ELISA, Western blotting, and fluorescent immuno-staining analysis. Although further investigations are necessary, obviously, our anti-human CD45 MAb is potential for research and diagnosis applications.</p> Giang Huong Ta Huy Quoc Nguyen Quan Dang Nguyen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-04 2020-09-04 23 3 665 672 10.32508/stdj.v23i3.2409 title description none g New method for preparing purity β-D-glucans (beta-Glucan) from baker’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: β-D-glucans (beta-Glucan), a water-soluble polysaccharide with diversity physiological activities for applications in food and pharmaceutical industries.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: In this paper, we report the use of ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium chloride [BMIM]Cl on the extraction and isolation of β-glucan from baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The β-D-glucans precipitated by adding water into the solution and obtained by filtration or centrifugation were pure, cleaned, and free of cell membranes.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The beta-glucan was obtained as white precipitates after adding water into the mixed solution. The 1D and 2D-NMR spectrum and titration methods applied for qualitative and quantitative determination showed that the beta-glucan product contained 78.2% 1,3-β-D glucan with 98.4% purity.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: This method can be used to prepare purified beta-glucan from baker’s yeast.</p> Khanh Ngoc Pham Nguyen Duy Nhut Nguyen Manh Cuong ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-04 2020-09-04 23 3 673 678 10.32508/stdj.v23i3.2051 title description none g Highly efficient sers performance from the silver nanoparticles/graphene nanoribbons/ cellulose paper <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Metal/graphene heterojunction structure has been one of the most crucial tools in the growth of high-performance Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) platform, which is appropriate for sensing applications. In this research, we developed a SERS platform, graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) decorated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on cellulose paper substrate, in which GNRs was synthesized by wet chemical based on unzipping process of Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), then GNRs hybridized with AgNPs through magnetron sputtering method.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: The morphology of graphene nanoribbons coated-Ag (AgNPs@GNRs) was analyzed by field emission scanning electronic microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The quality and thermal stability of GNRs were characterized using thermogravimetric analysis. Besides, its structure and quality were also characterized by Raman spectroscope.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The results show that the unzipping process of MWCNTs to form GNRs was strongly affected by dispersing time and stirring temperature. The suitable condition creating the Graphene Nanoribbons using MWCNTs was the dispersing time of 10 mins in an acid environment, stirring in 30 mins at room temperature and in 45 min at 100°C. Moreover, SERS platform of AgNPs@GNRs exhibit the outstanding SERS signal enhancement with rhodamine 6G (R6G) low concentration of 10-5 M compared with pristine graphene and silver thin film. This could be attributed to the synergistic effect between AgNPs, GNRs and analyze molecules based on the enhancement of electromagnetic mechanism (EM) and chemical mechanism (CM), which plays a vital role in promoting the improvement SERS behavior.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Ag NPs assembled onto graphene nanoribbons/ cellulose paper substrate could also serve as SERS active substrates for practical applications in various fields at trace levels.</p> Tieu Tu Doanh Thai Duong Nguyen Cong Danh Ton Nu Quynh Trang Ngo Vo Ke Thanh Vu Thi Hanh Thu Nguyen Van Cattien ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-04 2020-09-04 23 3 679 688 10.32508/stdj.v23i3.2390 title description none g Phenolic compounds from the leaves of Ricinus communis Linn. <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: <em>Ricinus communis Linn.</em> (Castor oil plant) is a monotypic species of Ricinus genus (Euphorbiaceae) and widely distributed in all tropical countries. Phytochemical data of this plant are scarce. As part of ongoing research on a survey of Vietnamese medicinal plants, the investigation of this plant was performed. The isolation and structural determination of five phenolic compounds isolated from the leaves of R. communis Linn. growing in Binh Phuoc province were addressed.</p> <p><strong>Method</strong>: The dried power of R. communis Linn. leaves was macerated in ethanol to afford the crude extract, which was then separated by liquid-liquid extraction with n-hexane, chloroform, and ethyl acetate, respectively to obtain the corresponding extracts. These extracts were applied to multiple silica gel column chromatography and thin-layer chromatography to yield five compounds. Their chemical structures were determined by spectroscopic methods and by comparison of NMR data with literature values. Antioxidant evaluation of 1 was carried out using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Five phenolic compounds, including one coumarinolignan cleomiscosin A (1), two flavonol glycosides kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2) and kaempferol-3-O-β-D-xylopyranoside (3), and two aromatic acids gallic acid (4) and vanillic acid (5) were identified.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Compound 1 was determined for the first time in Ricinus genus and exhibited weak DPPH radical scavenging activity with an SC50 value of 403.23 μg/mL.</p> Pham Nguyen Kim Tuyen Tran Thi Thao Linh Dinh Van Son Nguyen Van Thang Dang Van Son Nguyen Thi Quynh Trang Huynh Bui Linh Chi Nguyen Diep Xuan Ky Nguyen Tan Phat Huy Thuc Duong ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-24 2020-08-24 23 3 689 693 10.32508/stdj.v23i3.2407 title description none g An Overview of the Tectonic Evolution of the Indochina block and Granitoid Emplacement, particularly in the central and south Vietnam <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Vietnam is mainly located within the Indochina block in Southeast Asia. Asmall northern part of Vietnam belongs to the South China block, the southwest part liesadjacent to the Sibumasu block and opens to the East Sea on the east side. Tectonicactivities in Vietnam were very complicated they relate to intense interactions betweenmany geological blocks at different times. Magmatic emplacement is the final and instantproduct of tectonic activities.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Geochemical data analysis from rock samples withinVietnam collected by other researchers has been reused in the scope of this study to verifythe relation between tectonic evolutions and their granitic magmatism. GCD (GeochemicalData Toolkit), an R language program for handling and recalculation of geochemical data.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Geochronology and geotectonic model derived from rock analysis have beenascertained main tectonic evolutions of the Indochina. The current granitoidclassification in Vietnam mostly based on petrographical studies. The Nui Cam granitoid isbeing classified as Deo Ca, Dinh Quan granitoid. However, based on trace elements, they aredifferent. They may belong to different granitoid system.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Major tectonic eventswithin the Indochina block are well supported by the nature of granitoid emplacements. Petrological studies of these magmatic rocks would bring out valuable information toconfirm and clearly understand the tectonic evolutions of the region. Igneous rocksclassification must based on tectonic fundamental instead of petrographical studies.</p> Tuan Anh Nguyen Ngo Tran Thien Quy Vu Thi Hao Pham Minh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-24 2020-08-24 23 3 610 631 10.32508/stdj.v23i3.2062 title description none g Risk Factors of Lung Cancer Patients: A Survival Analysis with R <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: This paper studies risk factors which can have effects on the survival time of lung cancer patients during the treatment.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: The Cox proportional-hazards model has been applied for investigating the association between the survival time of patients and the predictors such as age, gender, the weight of patients, meal, the ECOG, and Karnofsky scores.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: In the study, we find that the ECOG score, the Karnofsky score evaluated by doctors and the gender are the top three factors that significantly affect the hazard rate. Also, we utilize the estimated model to predict survival probability for the patients.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: In this article, we intentionally present a complete and detailed guide on how to perform a R-based package in survival analysis step by step as well as how to interpret all output results.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Vu-Thanh Nguyen Thi Diem-Chinh Ho ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-02 2020-09-02 23 3 655 664 10.32508/stdj.v23i3.1794 title description none g A review on convenience and pollution caused by baby diapers <p>The one-time use and throw material are both alluring and alarming. One such is a baby diaper that takes more than 400 years to degrade in a landfill. The industry is embracing nonwovens (pads, wipes, napkins) and single-use materials to cater to the huge demand from the consumer community. Hence, to combat this diaper pollution, awareness of both the sectors is important. The toxicity associated with a product loaded with chemicals and a conscious choice that is to be made between convenience and pollution is briefed here. The paper addresses the history, nature, market share of one-time disposals with a special focus on baby diapers. The pollution and challenges in recycling diapers along with sustainable brands and commercially successful companies making eco-friendly products are identified. The latest buzz, including biopolymers and circular economy, are also discussed to give a complete perspective on the topic.</p> Aishwariya Sachidhanandham Priyanka M ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-19 2020-09-19 23 3 694 707 10.32508/stdj.v23i3.2399 title description none g